The following resources include reports that more generally frame current and anticipated challenges and potential solutions related to variable RE integration and span several topics discussed on other pages under Topics and Resources. These cross-cutting works cover a wide range of key topics, providing both an introduction and a “big-picture” perspective on grid integration.

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The Integration Topic pages on Greening the Grid provide in-depth discussion and resources related to particular mechanisms for supporting increased penetration of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. However, many pioneering power systems around the world are implementing actions that span several of these topics. The following resources include several recent reports that more generally frame current and anticipated challenges and potential solutions related to variable RE integration. These cross-cutting works cover a wide range of key topics, providing both an introduction and a “big-picture” perspective on grid integration. The resources below also include relevant case studies from around the world that discuss grid integration policies, regulations, and practices in power systems with high levels of variable RE penetration.

Reading List and Case Studies

Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)

Women in Power System Transformation, 2022

This topic covers operation and control of MMCs for HVDC transmission. A simplified MMC is used first to analyse the characteristic dynamics and the operating limits of the converter. Next, the design of the control loops of the MMC is discussed, emphasizing the main design challenges and trade-offs. The performance of the MMC is demonstrated using a detailed dynamic model and an averaged model that is compatible with large-scale power system simulation models. An overview of the state-of-the-art in MMC and ongoing research and development is provided at the end. This material consisting of recorded lectures, supporting lecture slides, and student exercises/assessments can be downloaded on the Global Power System Transformation Consortium website.

Power System Stability with 100% Inverter-Based Resources (IBR)

Women in Power System Transformation, 2022

This topic discusses the impact of rising levels of IBRs on power system stability. First, key characteristics of IBRs affecting the robustness of power systems and their effects on power system control and stability are identified. Then, the control challenges and stability problems encountered in a weak (low short-circuit level), low-inertia power systems with high shares of IBRs are covered together with the solutions that have been put forward thus far. This material consisting of recorded lectures, supporting lecture slides, and student exercises/assessments can be downloaded on the Global Power System Transformation Consortium website.

AEMO's Engineering Roadmap to 100% Renewables

Australian Energy Market Operator, 2022

This outlines the Australian Energy Market Operator's engineering challenges and actions needed to operate Australia’s National Electricity Market (NEM) solely on renewable generation. Building on previous stakeholder consultation and Engineering Framework publications, the ‘roadmap’ supports industry discussion and prioritised investment as the renewable resource potential in the NEM increases to meet 100% of demand as early as 2025.

Modern Distribution Grid: Strategy & Implementation Guidebook

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2020

This guidebook is intended to serve as a reference document for regulators at the state and community levels who are involved in directing or approving grid modernization plans prepared by utilities. Given the complexity of technology decisions associated with advancing distribution system capabilities, the DSPx Modern Distribution Grid series has focused on developing a practical construct for moving through a grid modernization planning process in a holistic, yet methodical, manner. This guidebook presents a set of considerations that regulators could then apply to their specific circumstances; for example, their particular policy objectives, anticipated rates of distributed energy resource deployment, concerns regarding grid reliability and resilience, and the current state of their electric grid system.

Getting Wind and Solar onto the Grid

International Energy Agency, 2017

This report provides a comprehensive review and clarification of the challenges and solutions for integrating grid-connected wind and solar energy. Intended for policymakers and staff at energy ministries, the report reviews measures to maintain the cost-effectiveness and reliability of power systems over four stages of increasing VRE deployment. Policy and regulatory measures covered in this report include grid codes, power system planning, renewable energy forecasting, and transmission and distribution network improvements, among others. 

Maintaining Reliability in the Modern Power System

U.S. Department of Energy, 2016

This report summarizes traditional and new approaches to maintaining a reliable electric system in the U.S., with a focus on approaches that can facilitate higher levels of distributed and variable generation. Four essential “rules” for maintaining electric system reliability are described: power generation and transmission capacity must be sufficient to meet peak demand for electricity; power systems must have adequate flexibility to address variability and uncertainty in demand and generation; power systems must be able to maintain stable frequency; and power systems must be able to maintain voltage within an acceptable range. New approaches for adhering to these “rules” with higher shares of variable RE generation include demand response and smart grid technologies, energy storage, flexible generation and transmission, power electronics, and others.

Grid Integration of Renewable Energy: Flexibility, Innovation, Experience

Eric Martinot, 2016

This report provides a concise global overview of grid integration challenges and emerging solutions, covering topics such as supply-side flexibility innovations, flexibility from distributed generation, curtailment, transmission and distribution system planning, and electricity market design. The report draws on experience from several jurisdictions where renewables provide 20%–40% of electricity generation, with particular emphasis on experiences in Germany, Denmark, and California. The report also references actions by developing countries (China, India, and South Africa).

RE-Powering Markets: Market design and regulation during the transition to low-carbon power systems

International Energy Agency, 2016

This report provides a detailed assessment of market designs, reforms, and regulations that can enable a least-cost transition to low-carbon power systems while maintaining security of electricity supply. Covering a broad range of topics including low-carbon investment strategies, short-term market design, reliability regulations, capacity markets, demand response, distributed resources, and retail price design, the report seeks to provide power system stakeholders with guidance to achieve the worldwide carbon reduction targets set forth in the Paris Agreement at the UNFCCC COP21 conference in December 2015.

Integration of Variable Renewables

International Energy Agency Renewable Energy Technology Deployment, 2015

This two-part report aims to inform policymakers and other non-technical power system stakeholders about specific policy tools that can create favorable conditions for higher variable RE penetration in a power system. Volume I outlines the analytic approach and presents findings to address three key questions:

1)      What are the typical country-specific factors that determine the choice of integration measure?

2)      Which options are applicable and effective in which context?

3)      What general lessons may be drawn by countries with similar underlying characteristics?

Volume II presents detailed case studies of variable RE integration measures in ten jurisdictions across eight countries in North America, Europe, and Asia. These case studies were developed through surveys, interviews, and face-to-face meetings with stakeholders to understand the policy pathways that countries can take to improve the policy landscape for variable RE integration.

Power System Flexibility Strategic Roadmap: Preparing power systems to supply reliable power from variable energy resources

Ecofys, 2015

This report and its associated webinar outline the general steps that can guide a power system's transition to RE as the primary source of electricity generation. The report synthesizes many technical reports, including some of those listed below, to summarize the large body of work on RE integration for a non-technical audience. The result is a strategic roadmap that outlines key challenges, immediate actions, and long-term planning strategies to enhance system flexibility. Topics covered include demand-side management, power markets, variable RE controls, resource diversity, energy storage, and smart grids.

The Age of Renewable Power: Designing National Roadmaps for a Successful Transformation

International Renewable Energy Agency, 2015

This report informs national policymakers about relevant actions they can take to develop a national roadmap for variable RE integration. The authors present a roadmap development framework that consists of five key steps:

1)      Stakeholder engagement

2)      Data collection for energy planning

3)      Flexibility assessment

4)      Evaluation and identification of relevant technologies

5)      Selection of appropriate variable RE integration measures.

The chapters in this report explain these steps in detail and also include brief case studies of policy actions in Germany, Japan, the United States, Denmark, and others to illustrate key concepts. The report concludes with several recommendations for designing a national roadmap for variable RE integration.

Grid Integration and the Carrying Capacity of the U.S. Grid to Integrate Variable Renewable Energy

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2015

This white paper summarizes the challenges to integrating variable RE, identifies emerging practices in power system planning and operation that can facilitate grid integration, and proposes a unifying concept—economic carrying capacity—for evaluating actions to accommodate higher penetrations of RE. Economic carrying capacity refers to the limit of variable RE in a power system as determined by economic, rather than technical, factors such as transmission capacity and operational flexibility. This concept provides a framework that enables power system planners to answer the question: “how much wind and solar can our electricity grid handle?”

Status Report on Power System Transformation

21st Century Power Partnership, 2015

This report provides a collection of examples of power system innovations from both developed and developing countries around the world. This collection of examples serves as a source of real-world evidence to enable decision makers to undertake innovative steps toward power system transformation. The report organizes examples into eleven domains of innovation:

1)      Environmental stewardship

2)      Transmission systems

3)      Distribution systems

4)      Transmission-distribution system interface

5)      Finance, markets, pricing and cost allocation

6)      Static and dynamic load

7)      Flexible generation

8)      Integration with heating and cooling

9)      Integration with transport

10)    Energy storage

11)    Microgrids.

Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

21st Century Power Partnership, 2014

This report provides a brief overview and clarification of the key concepts, concerns, and misperceptions related to power system flexibility, and presents a series of analytic frameworks that help to address the question “How much flexibility does my system have and how much renewable energy can I add while maintaining system reliability?” The analytic frameworks presented here are designed to enable power system stakeholders to evaluate system-specific flexibility, and can help inform policymakers about least-cost measures to integrate higher levels of variable RE while maintaining power system reliability.

Regulatory and Policy Examples

Beyond 33% Renewables: Grid Integration Policy for a Low-Carbon Future

California Public Utilities Commission, 2015

This white paper is a public utilities commission thought piece intended to inform and educate power system stakeholders and to facilitate a shared understanding of grid integration challenges and solutions, specifically with reference to California’s electric power system. California is a historic leader in variable RE integration, with a target of 50% RE capacity by 2050. The paper takes a deep dive into the potential reliability concerns of grid integration and outlines short- and long-term practices and policies that the California Public Utilities Commission can initiate to achieve RE penetrations beyond 33%.


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